Capitalism and Inequality

Foreign Affairs Volume 92 Number 2
Capitalism and Inequality : What the Right and Left get Wrong

Journal by : Jerry Z. Muller

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I may not an expert in this topic because all I know is general things about capitalism and socialism in surface level, which could be wrong interpretation, but I kinda want make this writing for the sake of it because this Journal give adequate and interesting explanation about capitalism, atleast for me.

In the very first part, the Author explain the effect of capitalism in America, which considered to be an economical inequality to it’s people. The people in the ‘left’ said Government must act to, atleast, reduce the inequality by taxing and spending a lot. The people in the ‘right’ said it was not necessary because the ‘market’ will correct the inequality itself later on so they must reduce Government taxing and spending. The author think’s they both wrong because inequality is ‘inherent’ problem as Capitalism implied.

Before the reasoning, the Author marked capitalism as private property use, goods and services distribution and selling based on free individual decision and market system. In capitalism system, only people who can ‘serve’ the market need, in more effective and efficient way, who can be succeed and the others who can’t will fail. That’s why capitalism, somehow, define the equality based on their people capability to answer the market need. The normative of this system pushed people spending their lifetime, creating new, innovative, even strange sometimes, ideas for market purpose so everyone get the benefit.

In advance capitalism countries, as Author explain, lot of barrier reduced so everyone, including woman, minorities, and the poor can participate in capitalism system, work for ‘market need’. The very easy example is role of woman shifting from household to corporate or company, which in this era of technology is allowing they made their own idea or work like other man basically do. The marriage which considered as union of woman and man in their base role (Man work to get money, woman work to take care the children and houses) somehow shifted to ‘partner’ who work together in capitalism system because they can get what they want to consume easily by the money they had in this kind of market.

The author explain in pre-capitalism era, the ‘market need’ marked by special organization or institution who had the right to do so, which may dictate the people live at some point, but at the same time, it can teach what really people need, because they may had capability to detect unnecessary need that people try to make or sell.

There’s always constant dynamism and innovation in capitalism to emerge the most benefit to all people at certain point, which at the same time, create a lot of insecurity to people who participate it because they must role their new idea before other people who had better idea kick them from the market. The left party in american, as the Author explain, mostly push the government to facilitate this insecurity, which may kind of social insurance or securities form.

Back to inequality, the author state that the problem about inequality in this capitalism system is not the lack of opportunity to participate, but because some of people incapable to knowing how to participate. There’s some explanation that Government  enforce children to participate education so they had skill to do so but, as the statistic Author use, there’s only 75% of U.S. high school graduation rate and roughly 40% of young adults are enrolled in college in twentieth century. The argument continued that there’s people, who may didn’t finish high school or college, had higher living standard than the people who graduate from it, which made the education questionable to function as the Government want.

In the end chapter, the Author ‘offers’ some probability thing’s to do for Government to solve the inequality because the capitalism, which is :

  1. Emerge redistribution income, by taxes, to reduce the rising of insecurity and inequality to come, which may had drawbacks because the Taxation must ‘flexible’ at some point to pay the insecurity that comes in period. Even that didn’t solve the underlying problem.

  2. Increasing the facilitation that enable the knowledge, Internet is the big example, so people can learn how to participate in capitalism system.

  3. Push the under-performed people by Government, as Author stated, is worse than cure the diseases because it promoting the under-performed which contradict as capitalism create and promote.

I admit capitalism emerge self-cultivation, self-responsibility and unlimited development which make people in general get the benefit of it. A lot of idea and creative product created by this system. But at the same time, the so called ‘self-cultivation’ tend to produce what market want, which may weird, strange or unnecessary at some point. Yes, they may argue as long as the idea sold then it works, but it not always direct towards good things. In the age of internet, I enjoy my time browsing and searching stuff I need for educational, tips, or entertainment purpose, but at the same time, I feel there’s too many information, or even shitty jokes and stupid debate in there, which made false alleged that as long as it’s popular/viral in media or internet then it’s right to do, even when you think about it just a moment, you know that most popular thingy kinda dumb and unnecessary  at certain degree.

The ‘responsibility’ to control that strange influence shifting from the authorized institutional to ourselves because Capitalism system enforce to reduce that kind of institute, blamed because it barriers the ‘work of free market’. I agree we should be responsible to each own life, but then again, how about people who still not adult and not wise enough to make decision? They can learn anything in Internet lately because the Capitalism open this channel, but they may not know it is unwise thing to do. This is why the role of parenthood in this capitalism is mostly needed, not only to educate their children as ‘capitalism participator’ later on, but also to teach them some virtue in living which may not valued by money or benefit as capitalism forced us to search.

Final Fantasy VII

Final Fantasy VII

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Director : Yoshinori Kitanase
Producer : Hironobu Sakaguchi

Final Fantasy VII is the second RPG I’ve played and I barely remember the story beside meteor fall, Shinra goes nuts and Cloud must save the day after his mental breakdown. After rewatching it, I now understand why so many fans tend to hype this series.

The setting of the story take hold in Planet, may called Gaia at some point and kinda like earth, which just get ‘industrialized’ by the biggest company in the Planet, Shinra is it’s name, by exploiting the Planet Energy called Mako. The civilization in the Planet shifting to modern life, most of it, because of the using Mako as new source of energy, even there’s some part of the Planet who still live with it’s traditional pace.

Shinra created Shinra’s Reactor all over the planet to exploit all Mako in every side of the planet, which is dangerous for the planet itself, but Shinra didn’t care. They dare to fight back, even kill, anyone who won’t obey. There’s history that Shinra killed or take as experiment every Ancient, a kind of human who can ‘speak’ with ‘Planet’ to find Promised Land, some Land that they believe full of Mako energy so they can rule the world. One of the Ancient experiment is Sephiroth, the best elite soldier of Shinra.

Sephiroth ‘born’ from human, which is Hojo, and Ancients, which is Jenova. But as the story goes on, it was explained that Jenova is not Ancient. ‘She’ is a somewhat same as Ancient, but had destructive instinct to engulf the Planet. This evil Ancient trying to destroy the planet in the past by wounding it badly but get halt by Ancient and human who work together. That’s why there’s Weapon, a monstrously fiend who created by Planet to protect from the same threat.

Back to Sephiroth, he had vague memories about his past and his origin. But then when he goes to Nibleheim on mission, where people experimented by Jenova cell in there, he realizes his origin, which make him driving insane and choose to fight Shinra and the Planet by saving Jenova to restore his mother pride and his race (evil Ancient). In that mission, Sephiroth fight with Zack, the first elite soldier, and Cloud, the normal soldier. Sephiroth still win the fight with mortal wound after the fight. Zack and Cloud didn’t survive but later on took and get experimented by Hojo. Both of them injected by Jenova and Sephiroth cell and, somehow, back to life and escaped from there. Zack killed when chased by Shinra, but Cloud survive, with his broken memories that always exchanged by Zack memories.

Go to present time, Cloud. as mercenaries, joined Avalanche, a rebel group who fight Shinra, lead by Barret and Tifa. They managed to destroy one of Shinra’s reactor but Cloud getting separated in middle of mission, which lead him to Aerith, the young woman who are the last Ancient who still survive and also Zack’s girlfriend. Shinra who still believe that Ancient will lead them to Promises Land kidnap Aerith so Cloud, together with Tifa and Barret, infiltrate Shinra Headquarter to save her. Cloud failed and jailed by Shinra, but then supprisingly Sephiroth come and murder lot of Shinra soldier, including the president itself. Fortunately, by that chance, Cloud and others managed take Aerith to safety. From there, they realized the Sephiroth ambition to destroy the Planet so they want to stop him, which is initial move to find Sephiroth.

Sephiroth objective is shifting from revenge to become a god-like by creating big meteor fall to Planet using Black Materia, which is not destroying but give a deadly wound to the planet which will force the planet to make an large amount of Mako to restore it. When that happen, Sephiroth will take that Mako to made him and Jenova become new god in the planet. Black Materia is taken in last Ancient Temple, which initially taken by Cloud but by Sephiroth mind hypnosis, Cloud forced to give the Black materia to him.

Cloud who still guilt and feel lost because Sephirot Mind Hypnosis made Aerith to stop Sephiroth by herself in ruined city of Cetra. She praying to the planet to using holy materia, which is somewhat anti-weapon of black materia. Cloud get hypnotized again by Sephiroth to kill Aerith but he resist, so Sephiroth kill Aerith by his own hand. Sephiroth succeed.

Still confused about his mind and memory, Cloud force himself goes with the party to Northen Crater, a place where Sephiroth real body and Jenova in there. Shinra, who lead by Rufus, the President Son’s, go to the same place because they also hunt Sephiroth. Lots of revealing in there, about Planet, Ancients, Jenova, Evil Ancients, and many other things, which lead to Cloud who get controlled again to give black materia by Sephiroth because he is the Sephiroth clone after Hojo experiment. Sephiroth and Jenova resurrected because of black materia, which at the same time make Weapons awoke to eliminate everything that they ‘think’ made threat to the Planet, including Shinra, Cloud party and other innocent human.

After that chaos, Cloud get broken because flooded by Mako poison. Tifa stay with Cloud, help him to restore his memories which kinda mess because Hojo experiment. They both succeed and reveal the truth abouth Cloud’s real identitiy and his reason to ‘lie’ as Zack so he can get his confidence to fight Sephiroth again without getting hypnotized. Realized the Planet in ultimate danger between Sephiroth awake, meteor falling, and arise of Weapons, Cloud, Tifa, and the party start the battle again to save the planet.

Shinra also want ‘save’ the Planet with their own way. They use canon, even rocket, fueled by special materia to ram the big meteor but failed. There’s also big battle between Shinra and Weapons who attack Midgard and other city. They both get destroyed because Hojo making mess between their war. Why? Because Hojo want protect Sephiroth, his ‘son’. Thankfully, Cloud and the party managed to stop that crazy scientist.

After that, Cloud and the party getting back Holy Materia from Centra Ruins and go to Northen Crater to rematch with Sephiroth and Jenova, which is basically the final battle from there. They succeed defeat both of Sephiroth and Jenova and activate Holy materia to hold the meteor that come falling. It seems failed at first because Holy Materia can’t hold the huge destructive power of the meteor, but, conveniently, the Planet comes with it’s Mako energy to help Holy Materia so they can fully destroyed the meteor.  The Planet saved once again by our heroes and Shinra ‘industrialization’ somehow replaced by the nature power of the Planet after their destruction.

I found this series is engaging in some way because the creator, atleast to me, seems care to enrich this story, make each character had their own arc and related with main plot and solid world building (mostly they all get their live fucked by Shinra at first). Cloud may ‘odd’ to me as main character when I see it in first half, but as story goes on, I can understand the mess he had, which somewhat convoluted in certain degree. As ‘evil’ as Shinra looks, I don’t know why I can’t hate them as villain when they try to protect the Planet from Weapons and Meteor with their own way. There’s some part of my thinking that Shinra will get ‘tolerated’ when the bigger threat (Sephiroth and Jenova) comes, but I guess the creator seems take favor to Cloud and the party, obviously. Can’t blame it because Shinra is taking every consequences they make because their villainous way. The theme may seems ‘traditional’ to me, which is nature versus industrialized, but the execution remains consistent and somehow predictable because the nature always ‘right’ and win at the end.

The Subtle Art Of Not Giving Fuck

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The Subtle Art Of Not Giving Fuck : A Counterintuitive Approach To Living a Good Life

Author : Mark Manson

The title of the book is provocative enough to impress that the content is teachs you how to not give fuck (care) about everything, which is somewhat may lead you into psychopath, but in fact it doesn’t. The book explain how to give fuck (care) about something important in our life in order to reach happiness, which is hugely different in every people perspective based one their experience, and ditch everything that irrelevant beside that. Kinda had same vibe with ‘goodbye, things’ by Fumio Sasaki, but it explained in different perspective. The book divided into nine chapter.

In first chapter, the Author tell you about the book’s objective, which I explained in first paragraph. In second chapter, the author explains that Happinness is not problem-free condition that most people always tell us, instead ‘True’ Happiness comes from problem. The author elaborated more further that life is suffering to every human, even they born from rich or stable family, life always find some ‘way’ to made us miserable or suffer.

Escape from the problem by getting drunk, partying, or doing crazy fun stuff may shift the anxiety from the problem we had, but it didn’t make the problem solved, instead, it can add more problem that we should attained. We had, or create, every reason to escape our own problem. Emotion is the mostly reason as the author stated, but the emotion itself oftentimes manipulative and trick your weak mind. That’s why, the Author believe that we, at the very least, choose our own problem to fuck (care) and pick how to struggle untill it get solved so the happiness we longing for achieved.

In Third Chapter, the author explain the dangerous of ‘identity falsehood’. He explained that most people oftentimes stick to their imagination about the identity they want based on their social circle, workplace, or family, even if they must lie in order to constantly made their ‘identity imaginaton’ real. The danger of this behaviour is come from the ‘identity’ that too different or too blend from mainstream social.

In case of the identity that too far different from social mainstream, people tend to make excuse to made them ‘exceptional’ because they identified, by themselves, too ‘different’ from the others, which oftentimes made they lazy to solve their own problem, hiding in their ‘exceptional’ reason. In the other hand, people who use that ‘identity card’ to follow the mainstream social will constantly anxious of what people thinking about him/her because the dynamic of people perceive about value’s in social term, even the values changes into creepy and toxic. This kind of people will follow it because they are shallow in their heart. That’s why the author told the reader not to be unique. We are not special. We had problem as any other and we had same responsibility to solve it with our own way so don’t blame your shitty situation to others. That decision will help people to more focuses to face the problem without confused about ‘identity falsehood’.

In fourth chapter, the author explained about the value of suffering, which is very tricky if you take a deep thought of it. It is explained by the Author that suffering, basically, happens because our dreams/target/expectation not fulfilled in reality. The thing is, we rarely ask ourself : is our dreams/target/expectation really can make us happy if it’s really happened? The Author give some example big artist who expelled from the band without any decent reason. Some can’t accept the rejection and take his life to revenge the band by making new band and spent most of his life to make great song to beat his enemy, which is succeed in some degree but not become too big if compared by his ‘arc nemesis’ (The man is Dave Mustaine – Megadeth Band). While in other example, there’s the one just kinda accept the rejection and started new life, which lead him to meet woman who will become his wife later. He may not become bigger ‘success’ as the band who expel him, but later he had stable marriage with his wife and participate as drummer in mostly international festival with fairly adequate payment (The man is Pete Beast, The Beatles). The Author conclude that ‘tragedy’ or shitty things that happen, which oftentimes comes unexpectedly, must be faced with precautionary and patient mind, as cliche as it sounds, you will never know the other way to ‘happiness’ that may lead to. It will be a needles suffering if you pick your own struggle just to prove you are worthed to someone who may didn’t care enough about you. Keeping the values of course is the key, which is the baseline toward ‘happiness’, but sometimes the values itself can be deceptive and irrelevant with your real condition, so you must had open-minded to admit the flaw that may come in your values.

In fifth chapter, the author elaborated more about choosing your own struggle. In life, there’s time we think that we didn’t choose the optional course that may lead our life into, but the reality is, the decision not to choose is decision itself, which in Life perspective, may lead you into other way that maybe you want to avoid. The Author tell that we oftentimes didn’t want take responsibilty of the problem that come, or tragedy to take it extremely, because they didn’t choose the problem. Unfortunately, life is problem, so even we didn’t want it, there’s always problem that will come. The only way to make it ‘meaningful’ is to take it, even we didn’t want to. Face it, pick your own struggle, and don’t give fuck (care) everything beside that.

Chapter sixth, seventh, and eighth mostly explained about failures that, always, happen in our life. We, as author stated, always see failures as bad things that should not exist in very first place, which is true at some point, but Life didn’t think that way. Failure is sign that challenge our values that we keeps inside in our heart. As we hate it, or as we prepared not to get this nightmare of failure, Life had their own way to shoving it into our throat. What the author want to told is, we should take the risk of failure even we hate or afraid or we try so hard until become depressed or anxious to face it, because there’s always possibly of it. Take the failure as step to improve and questioning our values that may irrelevant with our own current struggle.

The final chapter tells about death, the ultimate thing that made mostly human come numb and fear to accept it. In this chapter, the author told that if we fear of the death, then we fear of living too. Same as failure in life, if we accept that death will come to us or someone that hold dear to us, in whatever or whenever condition that seems to be, prepared or not, we will ‘free’ from the manipulative of ‘safe’ living. The moment we accept this reality then we started ‘real’ living with whatever expectation that will come, which relatively make we more ease to face every problem that always happens in uncertain way in life.

There’s many things that Author cover beside that I pointed before. Some content that stuck in my mind is the danger of shitty values which indicated by trying to get : (1) Pleasures, (2) material success, (3) always being right, and (4) staying positive, which is suprisingly ‘harsh’ and honest in my opinion because it somehow negate the ‘mainstream success’ that always told to us in every media. Mostly every part in this book tells you that ‘Life is suffering so choose your suffering to fuck (care) wisely’, which sounds too pragmatic and kinda egoistic in some degree, but somehow it ended true anyway. For anyone who had optimistic, bright, yes-man personality and ambitious, this book may shock you in some way, but it give pretty interesting insight because life is indeed suffering to each of us.

Laputa Castle in the Sky

Laputa : Castle in the Sky (Tenkū no Shiro Rapyuta)

Director and Writer : Hayao Miyazaki

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My very first impression about this movie is some adventure-type kid shows. But, as the show goes one, there’s a lot of pretty animation, setting, and character interaction that made me interest to keep watching until finished.

The plot started from Sheeta, the last princess of Laputa, who abducted by government agent because they want find the lost floating castle in sky, called Laputa, which had most sophisticated technology at that time and believe had lot of gold in there. During travel, Captain Dola and her air pirate crew strike to steal Sheeta  crystal amulet. In middle of conflict between air pirate and government, Sheeta manage to escape from government airship, which technically fall off from there and saved by crystal amulet which make her float and land safely in small mining town. She passed out and later saved by Pazu, the orphan boy from that town.

Sheeta didn’t talk much about the abduction to Pazu, but she know she can believe Pazu genuine help. She also can relate to Pazu dream to find Laputa because Pazu Father lost in the middle of searching Laputa. The peaceful moment didn’t last forever because the air pirate crew come to Pazu house. Sheeta choose to escape by herself but Pazu decide to save her. The chasing started in town and ended by Pazu and Sheeta fall from railway, but then saved (again) by Sheeta crystal amulet that made both of them floating and land into small mine. In there, they meet Uncle Pomme who tell them that the crystal amulet is created from Volucite Crystal, crystal that originally come from Laputa. Knowing that and Sheeta story, Pazu decide to take journey with Sheeta to Laputa.

Unfortunately, Pazu and Sheeta captured by military government and taken to Fortress of Tedis. Sheeta told Pazu that her real name is Lucita Toel Ul Laputa and had royal blood related to Laputa castle. She worried Pazu safety so she ask the government to release him in exchange she will cooperate with government to find Laputa. Later on, Pazu ‘get paid’ by Government and expelled by them.

Pazu who feel defeated back to his hometown with self hatred. Surpisingly he ‘welcomed’ by Captain Dola and her crew in his home, mocked because his cowardness then feel motivated to go back and save Sheeta with Captain Dola and her crew, even he know Dola only want Sheeta’s crystal amulet.

At the same time, Sheeta accidentally activated the broken robot who come from Laputa. The robot starting rage when he detect there’s threat to Sheeta. He take Sheeta while destroying the entire fortress with his deadly laser. Sheeta still panic though because she can’t control the robot. The government fight back by shooting the robot with their strongest cannon in fortress. Before the Robot exploded, Pazu came and save Sheeta, left the Fortress into rain of fire.

Sheeta, together with Pazu, joins the Air Pirate to find Laputa Castle in sky while Musk and the Government follow along. Both of them succed strive into wall of cloud and storm, where the Laputa Castle floating inside. There’s no human remains in the castle except the birds and the robot who still functioning in there. Sheeta and Pazu can feel the peacefulness in the castle, not long after the Government strive and made them separated again. The Government starting the raid without doubt to stole every gold remains in castle. Musk different though. He come inside throne room with Sheeta forcefully, where he can control the special weapon in Laputa, which is the castle itself.

Same like Sheeta, Musk is royal blood of Laputa. He want conquer world by using Laputa castle as his ultimate weapon and ressurect Laputa from it’s extinction. In the middle of that chaos, Pazu comes after saving Captain Dolan and her crew. He succed saved Sheeta, even they both still lose because Musk had gun to threat them. They both planned to made Laputa self-destruct using Sheeta crystal power and secret code that only the royal blood know, even they both know they can die because this decision. The plan succeed, Laputa destroyed and Musk fall, probably dead, along with castle’s debris. Pazu and Sheeta, conveniently, saved by their last airplane. Captain Dolan and her crew also survived with some Laputa gold. They separate each other and the adventure of Laputa ends.

I understand this is a kid adventure movie. There’s a a lot convenient thing to Sheeta and Pazu to survive their journey, but then again, I feel it’s not in the degree of breaking the immersion. The relationship of Pazu and Sheeta is sweet and innocent. They still kids who oftentimes confused and scared of the adult’s mischief, but they still fight with their own way. It amazes me that they choose to make Laputa self-destruct in final act even that decision risk their very life. The main themes in the story I guess about anti-war message, which is corny for old man like me, but I still can enjoy for what it is because the MC is two innocent kid, which I can’t hate because their sweet relationship and innocent and brave act, not being annoying by doing cheesy stuff. Other than that, you can enjoy watch it by the beautiful setting, fluid animation, and sometimes cartoony comedic.

Bloodborne Old Hunters

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Bloodborne – The Old Hunter

The Old Hunter is DLC of Bloodborne. As the titles sound I somehow believe the story took setting in one of Hunter Nightmare where Hunters and The Church starting develop the ‘Old Blood’ in the very beginning, which is the time when Laurence still comply master Willen to develop the ‘Old Blood’ so they can evolve, or atleast, connected to Great Ones. In this Hunter Nightmare you may visit some of same places in regular playthrough bloodborne, the different is, there’s still sun that rose in this place.

As for the story I grasp, I think it started when Master Willen order The Church and Hunters to took the Umblicial Cord, the Surrogate of Great Ones, in Befuddled Village which believed there’s Great One in there, the name is Kos, who worshipped by all the villager. The consequence of worshipping Kos is kinda gross because it made the villager become fishmen but somehow made them stronger than human being. The Church, either it leads by Laurence or Ludwig, and The Hunters, lead by Gehrman and his student, Maria, succed raided the village and murder every villager ruthlessly by drilled their skulls to make sure they can connect with Great Ones later. They also succed kill the Great Ones, Kos, and his child, Orphan of Kos, so they, which is Gehrman and Maria, succed get the Umblicial Cord from Kos.

Not every villager murdered actually because some of them become experimental in Research Hall so they can make contact with Great Ones. Maria, who feel guilt because her raid choose to became caretaker to every ‘patients’ in there as her redemption. Unfortunately the experiment totally failure. Most of them become insane or die. Maria choose to suicide in Astral Clocktower while keep the secret of the experiment, the villager who become Fishman, the Great One Kos and Great One Child, Orphan of Kos. While Gherman, who feel devastated by the death of his most ‘lovable’ student, choose to use Umblicial Cord by himself so he become Great Ones Moon Presence servant and had his own Hunter Dream and Nightmare, which make him survive the ‘Old Blood’. Laurence, Ludwig and other hunters who came back to Yharman with empty hand can’t handle the wild drive of ‘Old Blood’ and become beast.

My experience in this playthrough is fascinating, and still obviusly ‘challenging’. My favorite part is in boss battle, especially when fight Ludwig (The Accursed/Holly Blade) and Lady Maria. The theme song and mastering mechanism or pattern to defeat them is very interesting. Even though, there’s also frustating time, which I considered the most stressful moment while I play Bloodboren, that is when I fight Orphan of Kos. I almost lost count of how many death I had when that cunt rape me.

There’s no additional thing in story rather than explaining some things that already happen in lore, kind of prologue before Bloodborne start. But I think it definetly worth to play if you enjoy Bloodborne. The boss fight in this DLC is a pinnacle of the playthrough in my opinion.

Bloodborne

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Director : Hidetaka Miyazaki

Developer : From Software

I admit I’m too naive when think that I will understand the story while playthrough it. All my concentration goes to fight the annoying enemy, avoiding death trap, fight unforgiving monster with crazy damage and other unknown thing that lead me to painful death. In the beginning, it’s hard to grasp what’s happening in the world because every enemy, boss, even NPC (except : the Doll) at some point become heavily insane either to kill anyone or suicide with very implicit explanation. But in the end of gameplay, I starting understand the story from my perspective.

It started with the ‘blood’ that can cure every diseases and used by many people in Yharman. The ‘blood’ developed in Yharman by special Institute called Blood Ministration which founded by Laurence. However, most of people who use the ‘blood’ starting losing their sense and sanity. They even become blood thirsty alongside their physical appearance changes become a beast and starting attack innocent people. This phenomena is somewhat foreseen by Laurence master, Willem, who constantly remind his student with adage ‘Fear the old blood’. Willem understand that the ‘blood’ is not medicine, but a key for human to evolved become greater mankind which conquered by Great One or possibly become the Great One itself.

Laurence didn’t listen his master. He instead lead white-garbed ‘doctors’ and cooperate with Gehrman, who lead ‘black – garbed’ hunters, to ‘hunt’ the beast in Yharman so they can save the innocents. They develop the ‘blood’ so the doctors and hunters atleast can control the insanity of the blood and had the fairly power to defeat the beast.

Unfortunately, things not goes as Laurence and Gehrman expected. Laurence and his friend who support him can’t survive the wild drive of ‘Old Blood’ so they become beast. Gehrman also choose to succumb under Great Ones (somewhat equal to gods term in this game), which is Moon Presence, by using Umbilical Cords, the Surrogate of Great Ones. Moon Presence creating Hunters Nightmare and dreams so Gehrman can ‘manage’ the hunters for the hunt. Why the hunt important to Moon Presence? I just guessing it related to blood echoes that hunter got by defeating enemy and used for leveling or buying some items which is connected somehow to make Moon Presence stronger. Either way, he need hunter to defeat another Great Ones.

There’s three ending offered to player after you defeat all Great Ones except Moon Presence :

1. You choose to killed by Gehrman peacefully so you free from Nightmare hunters

2. You choose to kill Gehrman so Moon Presence make you as Gehrman substitute who will ‘manage’ other hunter via Nightmare and Hunter dreams

3. You choose to kill both Gehrman and Moon Presence so you become the new and the only one Great Ones. The third ending is considered as true ending.

There’s a lot of sub-plot in the story with each own lore which keep you interesting to play. Beside the challenging gameplay, the gothic setting, eerie and depressing atmosphere is presented spot on. Bloodborne is my first soulborne game and it succeed hook me to play the other souls game.

Goodbye, things

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Title : Goodbye, things
Author : Fumio Sasaki

I read the book out of curiosity without knowing anything about minimalism and other kind of that. This book structured by five part.

First part, the Author explained the definition of minimalism which is reducing your possession into absolute minimum you needed. The possession itself, as Author elaborated, mostly come from the things we had which tend bought or took because unnecessary drive from us without realizing that there’s ‘cost’ of maintaining that unneeded things.

Second part, the Author took more deep explanation about the drive of possession or urge to buy or keep things. The author explain that human had social drive from born so they need external validation, either it’s from their inner circle social, family, friend, community or workplace, which often times indicated by things we had, even the things itself is not needed by us. We, as author said, ‘sacrifice’ energy, money, or time to maintain that unnecessary things because afraid of (bad) social judgment. The things is not to blame, because things just being exist for functioning, whatever it is. The problem lies to people who had uncontrollable drive to possess the things without full consent about maintaining it and slowly made the people lying him/herself about their anxiety of maintaining it, making false pride based of that unneeded things. The satisfaction from buying or keeping possession always gradually decline in matter of time, which made people urge to buy new things after that and the chain effect of possession going back to loop.

The ‘silent threat’ of possession told by the Author together with his way to becoming minimalist which divided into 55 way and 15 steps for next stage of the minimalist journey in third part. The 55 way explained clearly based of author experience live in Japan. The 15 steps is somehow additional things that Author do to constantly keep his minimalist lifestyle and made their unique identity. It is clear enough to understand when you read this chapter, but at the same time, there’s certain part that you feel disconnected or unusual to do because Author experiences in Japan is not always had same condition in reader who live from different country.

Fourth and fifth part mainly explain about positive impact from being minimalist lifestyle. The Author explained briefly that the effect apply to saving cost, energy and time from reducing the possessing so you had more time, energy and time to focus what you really need and want, purely honest from your own heart, not judged from your inner social. It is predictable that after succeed self discovery and free from false judgment of social or mainstream media about possessing thing is happiness, you can reach ‘true’ happiness.

That being said, I understand, and agree in some degree, that the general principle of minimalist lifestyle is being content and grateful of life, not dictated of false possessing things. However, I believe that the ‘urge’ to possessing new things is not absolute bad if you fully understand what you needed and know the value you get later. I agree mostly social or mainstream media oftentimes give false advertisement to keep or possessing things, but sometimes, there’s people who actually care about us and know what we needed even we kinda blind to see their genuine perspective. To those who live in kind of place that full of facilities, easy access to buy or keep foods, clothes, transportation and houses, I think this book give a pretty good insight.